How fructose is metabolised differently from glucose.

Firstly lets state exactly what we mean by SUGAR.

There are many different “sugars” but we are talking about the kind of sugar that we put in our tea, ie table sugar. “Table Sugar” (Real name Sucrose) is actually two single sugars, Glucose and Fructose joined together.

Glucose is our friend, because it is required by every cell in our body, for energy, and when converted to fats, for energy reserves.
Complex carbohydrates such as potatoes, rice, bread etc are actually joined up clumps (molecules) of glucose. When they reach the stomach they are broken down into single molecules of glucose by our stomach acid. They then pass through the intestinal wall and are absorbed into the blood stream. Insulin is released from our pancreas, which notifies the cells in our body to prepare for a delivery of glucose. Receptors on the surface of the cells are raised to catch the glucose and allow it to enter the cell. Once inside the cell, the glucose is converted to fat for storage in fat cells or burned for fuel in muscle cells. From here on it can only be released as fat to ‘fuel’ cells. It cannot be converted back to glucose.

When table sugar, in drinks, cakes, biscuits etc reach the stomach, or are absorbed by our blood vessels in our mouth in liquids etc, it is broken down into, again single molecules, of Fructose and Glucose. Glucose is treated exactly as above.

Fructose cannot be used by any cell in our body directly, so it is transported off to our liver, which converts it to Glycogen (a form of joined up glucose for storage) or triglyceride fats, which are transported through the blood stream to fat cells for storage. Again receptors on the cell surface break down the triglycerides (three fats joined together) into single fats, small enough to enter the cell, where, once inside the cell, are reassembled into triglycerides again for storage.
The liver has to work really hard to process fructose, and different people have different ways of determining whether to convert it to Glycogen or Fats. The liver can only process a certain amount of fructose before it becomes overwhelmed. When this happens it allows fructose to remain in the blood stream much longer, doing damage by attaching to receptors designed for other critical purposes.
Fructose has no effect on insulin response, as insulin can only deal with glucose.
Elevated fructose in the blood oxidises fats in the blood stream, creating sharp fragments, which damage the artery walls. Causing inflammation and artery disease, and preventing essential fats from doing their job of forming new brain neurons, glueing cells together to prevent scurvy and a host of other disease prevention tasks.

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